S. bicolor ssp. 1A). McDonough, in Reference Module in Food Science, 2016. Yi-Hong Wang, ... Ismail Dweikat, in Genetic and Genomic Resources for Grain Cereals Improvement, 2016. Sorghum is the fifth leading whole grain cereal crop in the world and is found primarily in tropical, subtropical, and arid regions such as Asia and Africa. It is indigenous to Africa. 2146, 2312, and 18551 of African origin (Table 18.2). Table 8.5. ), spotted stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swin. The Ethiopian increase has been characterized by average yields from 2004 to 2013 of 1.8 t ha− 1 compared to an Africa-wide average of < 1 t ha− 1. Since both crops have been available worldwide, there has been a general trend for maize to be more popular in higher rainfall areas and sorghum to be cultivated in more marginal environments. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the top sorghum producing countries have been the United States, Nigeria, India, Mexico, and Argentina (Table 5.1). The feeding value of sorghum for livestock species is generally considered 95% or more of the feeding value of yellow dent maize. Texas A&M University has employed S. propinquum to produce cultivars with early maturity and good yields but these have yet to be released (cited in Hajjar and Hodgkin, 2007). Panicles of S. halepense are more attractive to the females than those of Sorghum stipoideum, Sorghum brachypodum, S. angustum, Sorghum macrospermum, Sorghum nitidium, Sorghum laxiflorum, and S. amplum. Genetic diversity and population structure among sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L.) germplasm collections from Western Ethiopia May 2016 AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY 15(23):1147-1158 Mixed sorghum contains a blend of kernels with and without pigmented testa. The germ is diploid owing to the sexual union of one male and one female gamete. Serna Saldivar, in Reference Module in Food Science, 2016. Tissue Culture and Genetic Transformation in Sorghum bicolor, D. Balakrishna, ... B. Venkatesh Bhat, in, Harris, 1961; Teetes, 1985; Franzmann et al., 2006, Franzmann and Hardy, 1996; Sharma and Franzmann, 2001a,b. R.D. Among the top five producing countries, Argentina is also a top per capita producing country (Table 5.1). Interestingly, some brown sorghums are very high in antioxidant concentration and they have found application in cereal-based health food products. However, there has been a downward production trend in the United States over the past 50 years. Sorghum endosperm requires a little longer to cook compared to maize endosperm particles. S. bicolor ssp. Minerals are located in the pericarp, aleurone layer and germ; therefore, refined sorghum products lose part of these important nutrients, as in all other refined cereal fractions. Sorghum is an important source of minerals and amongst them, P is the most abundant (Kent and Evers, 1994) (Table 8.5). Sorghum is a grain crop grown in many parts of the world. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. One species is grown for grain, while … In India, over the past five decades, a large proportion of the world, Singh and Rana (1992), Chandra Shekar (1991), Bapat and Mote, 1982; Mote 1984; International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) 1995; Kamala et al., 2009, GRAIN-BASED PRODUCTS AND THEIR PROCESSING, Encyclopedia of Food Grains (Second Edition), Sorghum Grain in Food and Brewing Industry, Phenotypic Diversity of Colored Phytochemicals in Sorghum Accessions With Various Pericarp Pigments, Sorghum Grain, Its Production and Uses: Overview, Interlard fishmeal technique/infestor rows, Leaf cage technique/augmentation of aphids, Mylar cage technique (augmentation of shoot bugs), Head cage technique (augmentation of earhead bugs), IS 1082, IS 2146, IS 4664, IS 5490, IS 5604, IS 2205, IS 1055, IS 4664, IS 4906, IS 5837, IS 2195, IS 10327, IS 1133C, IS 1134C, IS 1139C, IS 1144C, IS 1598C, IS 5188C, IS 5887C, IS 6389C, IS 6416, IS 6426C, IS 8100C, IS 12158C, IS 12551C, IS 12599C, IS 12608C, IS 12645C, IS 12661C, IS 12664C, TAM 428, IS 3461, IS 7034, IS 8571, IS 9807,IS 19474, IS 9512, DJ 6514, AF 28 and TAM 2566, IS 17610, IS 7645, IS 21444, IS 6984, IS 9692, IS 17615, CSM 388, IS 14332, Malisor 84-7, Sakoika. (A) The upper part shows the structure of the SbCAD cDNA sequence. 1. They are tall, fast-growing summer annual grasses and can also suppress weeds and nematodes (Clark, 2007). L.W. Regardless of type, sorghum must be properly processed to enhance its digestibility. The Local Origin of Genetic Structure: The Case of the Pari and Nyithin Sorghum. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. Sorghum genotypes, a total of six, which included two genotypes of red (pigmented sorghum), two genotypes of yellow sorghum, and two genotypes of white sorghum, were identified as resistant lines to aflatoxin production (Ratnavathi and Sashidhar, 2003). But sorghum use in food is on rise due to its functional and health properties. Most sorghum hybrids do not contain condensed tannins in contrast to impressions given in some publications. In order to better understand the structure and function of this unique class of plant P450 enzymes, we have characterized the enzyme C4H1 from lignifying tissues of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), encoded by Sobic.002G126600. There are at least 150 insect species that can infest sorghum worldwide. The endosperm is composed of the aleurone layer, peripheral, corneous, and floury areas. Birds will consume brown sorghums when other foods are scarce. Sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) is the 5th most important cereal globally in … Nigeria experienced dramatic growth in sorghum production from 1964 to 2006 with a slight decline since then. Taylor, Johanita Kruger, in Sorghum and Millets (Second Edition), 2019. Sorghum bicolor is a widely grown cereal crop, particularly in Africa, ranking 5th in global cereal production. The content of total carotenoids was correlated with sorghum pericarp and endosperm pigments. Till date, many sorghum transgenics were reported using particle bombardment and Agrobacterium-mediated methods by making use of shoot apical meristems and immature embryos as the explant material. Other major sorghum producers are Nigeria, India, and Mexico, each producing 6–8 mt pa in the decade 2004–13. Fermentation, malting, and other processing methods improve the nutritional value significantly. The hybrid accounts for 3/4 of the total hybrid sorghum seed market (Smith and Frederiksen, 2000). The radicle forms primary roots, whereas the plumule forms leaves and stems. ), and head caterpillars, Helicoverpa armigera and Eublemma are the major pests worldwide. Processing of sorghum by steam flaking, micronizing, popping, and reconstitution is designed to disrupt the endosperm structure to improve the digestibility. Sorghum differs somewhat from barley so it is important to study the structural changes wh i ch occur during sorghum malting. Akingbala et al. drummondii and Sorghum purpureosericeum also produced progenies that performed better than the cultivated sorghum parent from a single backcross (Jordan et al., 2011a). Sorghum purpureosericeum and Sorghumversicolor of Indian and African origin, respectively, possess high levels of resistance to the shoot fly (Bapat and Mote, 1982; Mote 1984; International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) 1995; Kamala et al., 2009). A. Cruickshank, in Reference Module in Food Science, 2016. Along with many other functional and healthful properties, sorghum shows promise to be potentially functional in health benefit-promoted food products. As mentioned earlier, Johnsongrass has been found to be a source of resistance to greenbug and chinch bug and adaptability to cold temperature (Dweikat, 2005). The white class contains sorghum with a white pericarp without a pigmented testa and cannot contain more than 2% of sorghum with pigmented testa or colored pericarp. Australia is the only non-African country where sorghum production significantly exceeds that of maize. Structure of the mature sorghum kernel viewedwith the scanning electron microscope. Leaf damage, deadheart, and stem tunneling are the selection criteria for stem borer resistance. This is facilitated by the fact that domesticated sorghum is sexually compatible with all of its wild relatives in section Sorghum (Andersson and Carmen, 2010) including S. halepense (Johnsongrass), S. propinquum, S. bicolor ssp. Amongst the B vitamins, concentrations of thiamine, riboflavin and niacin in sorghum were comparable to those in maize. Highest levels of antibiosis to biotype E were found in Sorghumhalepense (Duncan et al., 1991). S29 and Kamboinse local. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. However, sorghum crop improvement through genetic engineering is a challenging task. Some of these species have grown as cereals for human consumption and some in pastures for animals. Commercial sorghum grain has a flattened spherical shape, 4 mm long, 2 mm wide and 2.5 mm thick, with a kernel weight of 25–35 mg. Plant Physiol. Sorghum is probably the only tropical cereal with increased potential for use in malt-based products in the future. It turns out that Sudangrass cultivars contain the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin that is degraded through an intermediate step to p-hydroxybenzal-dehyde (p-HBA) and HCN. Sorghum foods, particularly those made from tannin-type sorghum, can have somewhat slower starch digestibility than identical-type foods from other cereals. Structure of the sorghum N-6 CAD gene. Sorghum is extremely recalcitrant to produce transgenic plants in vitro. The sorghum midge, Stenodiplosis sorghicola, survives only on the members of the genus Sorghum (Harris, 1979; Franzmann and Hardy, 1996). To study the impact of sorghum racial structure and diversity in genomic prediction, we … They were multiplied at the farms of National Research Centre for Sorghum, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. Production of sorghum by major countries, averaged for the decade 2004–13. Piper and Kulakow (1994) conducted a similar experiment (with two backcross generations added) in an effort to produce perennial sorghum varieties. In their study, as seed mass increased with backcross generation, rhizome expression decreased, that is, backcross progeny became more like the S. bicolor parent although there were exceptions. Genotypes with high stem sugar content are reported to be susceptible to stem borer incidence (Bhatt and Singh, 2003). Sorghum is produced in over 100 countries, but of these, only 14 produce about a million tonnes or more annually (mt pa) (Table 1). Seventeen of the 25 species are native to Australia, with the range of some extending to Africa, Asia, Mesoamerica, and certain islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. There are two types of hybrid plants: (1) sterile plants with 30 chromosomes and vigorous rhizomes and (2) fertile plants with 40 chromosomes and weak rhizomes (cited in Dweikat, 2005). The sorghum class cannot contain more than 3% sorghum with a pigmented testa (undercoat). Screening for resistance to aphids is done under greenhouse by infesting the test material with uniform number of insects per plant at the flag leaf stage. Regarding phytochemicals, sorghum and millet foods generally have higher levels of anthocyanin-type phenolic phytochemicals. The flowthrough is allowed to ferment for 24–48 h. Excess water is removed and the resulting slurry is cooked in milk or water to make thin or thick porridge (Banigo and Muller, 1972). Total soluble solids, sucrose, and purity of juice were significantly and positively correlated with stem borer incidence. Subject. For sustainable cultivation of sorghum, more emphasis should be on developing/identifying lines suited for specific end products. In the corneous endosperm, the protein matrix has a continuous interphase with the starch granules, with protein bodies embedded in the matrix (Fig. The leaf and stems fibers produced are multicellular and have similar cellulose contents. Growth and development of sorghum is similar to corn, and other cereals. C. Aruna, K.B.R.S. Sorghum kernel structure and its relation to milling performance and porridge quality Detailed structural descriptions of the sorghum kernel are documented by Rooney and Miller (1982). Ogi is a traditional porridge in Nigeria and is manufactured by wet-milling sorghum, maize or millet. The sorghum caryopsis is composed of three anatomical parts: pericarp, endosperm, and germ (Fig. Padmaja, C. Aruna, in Breeding Sorghum for Diverse End Uses, 2019. Novel genes, beyond primary and secondary gene pools, have potential to enhance overall sorghum productivity through genetic modifications in sorghum. The structure of mature caryopses of pearl millet is very similar to the structure of sorghum (Fig. Though technology required for transformation of sorghum into excellent products is in general available, economics and availability of good quality sorghum flour are critical factors limiting use of sorghum. Standardization of processing technologies and establishing value-added foods in promotion of health and nutritional benefits and certification of the functional health foods can further expand the area under sorghum. Sorghum seedlings are smaller than corn due to smaller seed size. Sensory analysis indicated that no significant differences existed between the sorghum beer and a commercial malted barley beer with regard to aroma, mouth-feel, after-taste, and clarity. Globally, it produces approximately 70 ... Because of to the structure of the flower, mainly sel f-pollination takes place. Screening under natural conditions is carried out in such a way that susceptible stage of the crop coincides with peak activity period of the insect. ), head bugs, Calocoris angustatus (Leth. The endosperm tissue is triploid, resulting from the fusion of a male gamete with two female polar nuclei. • Sorghum is the third grain most used in the world to feed human population, 75% of the world sorghums produccion is destinated for human consumption. The wet milling of food-type sorghums produces excellent prime starch. Sangduen and Hanna (1984) reported that hybrids between sorghum and Johnsongrass were vigorous, leafy, and more closely resembled Johnsongrass than S. bicolor in perennial growth habit, open panicle, seed color/shape, and seed shattering. Sorghum is an ancient cereal grain belonging to the grass family Poaceae. Sorghum has huge potential for wider use, but the challenge to improve sorghum utilization is ahead. Use of infester rows, split planting at 15 day intervals, arranging the material according to maturity groups, and use of overhead sprinklers to maintain high humidity, head cage screening are the methods used to increase the efficiency of screening for resistance to C. angustatus. However, due to its lower fat content, sorghum usually has a slightly lower gross, digestible, and metabolizable energy. In India, over the past five decades, a large proportion of the world sorghum germplasm collection has been evaluated for resistance to insect pests, and a number of lines with resistance have been identified (Sharma et al., 1992, 2003). A study using simulation to compare climate-adjusted yield improvement found sorghum yield improvement was substantially better than that of wheat in subtropical Australia. Identified resistant lines mostly belong to maldandi and dagdi types of durra race. Structural Determinants of Substrate Specificity in Family 1 Beta-Glucosidases: Novel Insights from the Crystal Structure of Sorghum Dhurrinase-1, a Plant Beta-Glucosidase with Strict Specificity, in Complex with its Natural Substrate Verdoucq, L., Moriniere, J., Bevan, D.R., … Taken together, these observations explain how CoA-dependent transferases with similar structural features can participate in different biochemical pathways across species. Most of the identified resistant sources for midge belong to caudatum, durra, caudatum/nigricans, zera-zera, caudatum/kafir, nigricans, caffrorum, darso, durra–nigricans/durra–nandyal, and caudatum–bicolor groups of sorghum. Sudan, Burkina Faso, Niger, Mali, and Cameroon have all steadily increased their sorghum production and currently average 1–1.5 mt pa. Sudan has the highest ratio of sorghum to maize in the world, this being an indicator of the importance of sorghum to a particular country. Chavan, in Sorghum Biochemistry, 2016. Females of sorghum midge, S. sorghicola did not lay any eggs in the spikelets of S. angustum, Sorghum amplum, and Sorghum bulbosum compared with 30 eggs in S. halepense under no-choice conditions (Sharma and Franzmann, 2001). We will assume here that sorghum is more important as food or feed in countries with high per capita production. To better understand the factors and mechanisms involved in starch and protein digestibility and micronutrient availability in sorghum and millet foods, there must be far greater emphasis on in vivo studies, especially using appropriate human subjects. The pericarp (Fig. Finally, both Johnsongrass (Sangduen and Hanna, 1984) and S. propinquum (Washburn et al., 2013) have been used to introduce perenniality (rhizomatousness) to cultivated sorghum.

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