The FTIR confirms the dispersion of the nanoparticles in PMMA matrices with the C=O and C–O–C bonds of the PMMA shifting slightly which may be attributed to the interactions between the nanoparticles and PMMA. Two dimensional nanomaterial such as silicate layers, 4. Knoop hardness results of dental resins with clay and silica nanoparticles. Silica is hydrophilic due to the presence of Si-OH. Built by scientists, for scientists. anion, such as CO32-, SO42-, and NO3-[55]. different behavior of its material properties. Recent progress in biodegradable polymers and nanocomposite-based packaging materials for sustainable environment. The nanocomposites in which the compositions do not contain any polymers or polymer-derived materials are called non-polymer-based nanocomposites . An effective approach to manage plastic wastes is recycling which has received considerable attention. There are many reports of improved penetrate permeability [16]. Nath A., Shah A., Bhandari S., Gogoi M., Mahato M. (2019) Recent Advances on Polymer Nanocomposite-Based Radiation Shielding Materials for Medical Science. In this time, graphene, graphene analogs, and polymers have increasingly found use as components in nanocomposite materials. Polymer Nanocomposite Materials for Structural Applications 63 20 10 received WO 3 in epoxy resulted in clear separation of particles and epoxy as seen in Figure 1(c). The MgO nanocrystals were prepared from magnesium oxalate powders as precursor. All materials were characterized by FTIR, DRS, UV–Vis and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The results are listed in Table 4. -dispersion of the clay within the polymer. The addition of titanium dioxide caused a greater decrease in the spin-lattice relaxation time of the hydrogen nucleus, mainly at the 5% ratio, which can be related to good dispersion of this oxide in the polymer matrix. The systems containing clay allowed prolonged drug release. Polymer Nanocomposite Materials for Structural Applications Vijaya Rangari Materials Science and Engineering, Tuskegee Universi ty, AL United States of America 1. The relaxometry characterization was done by measuring T1H. Therefore, a polymer nanocomposite is a composite where filler and bulk polymer are minor components, and the interfacial polymer is the component that dictates material properties. Types of nanoparticles and their surface treatments Polymer matrix whether thermoplastic or thermosetting. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Silver in nanoscale has bactericidal properties and provides UV light protection. AFM images of a) pure ABS b) ABS/SnS nanocomposit, information alone is not enough to identify th, XRD analysis is not used alone in studies to deduce the nanocomposite, XRD pattern ABS–clay hybrid nanocomposites, alkyl ammonium, distance between layers increa, patterns of ABS-OMMT because of intercalation of single chains of ABS in the galleries of, the host shows an increasing interlayer di, Fig. Novel polymer nanocomposite materials We develop new materials for structural, electronic, electrical, and shape memory applications by combining nanoscopic metallic, semi-conducting, and non-metallic inorganic particles with high performance engineering thermoplastics, thermoplastic elastomers, and thermosetting polymers. Some important aspects of this method should be pointed out. These PNC's belong to the category of multi-phase systems that consume nearly 95% of plastics production. 3.5 Nanocomposite with gas barrier performance, By addition alumina silicate layers to polymer matrix can be obtained gas barrier, 4. Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Preparation of polymer nanocomposite materials by 'Living' radical polymerization using the RAFT process'. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. The main degradation agent is oxygen, but it is not alone. SEM images of a) SnS nanoflowers b) ABS/SnS c) Bi, the registry between the clay layers is lost, Unfortunately, this same situation will occur if the clay has extensively disordered, so XRD, Fig. Though the theory of nanocomposite construction was devised in 1950, very little commercial activity came as a result. Methods of nanocomposite preparations including solution or nanodispersion mixing, melt mixing, and in situ polymerization are discussed, as well as specific applications of nanocomposite materials. The solids presented high cyclohexene epoxide selectivity and were reused for three times, but a small decrease in the catalytic activity was observed. Available from: Different methods for synthesis of polymer nanocomposites, Examples of obtaining nanocomposites by different methods and determination of their characteristics, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Institute of Macromolecules Professor Eloisa Mano, IMA/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The clay layers interfere in the preferential diffusion pathways of the drug, creating more tortuous pathways, delaying the drug diffusion (Figure 7). Also, CNTs improve the resistance of polymers to UV degradation, mechanical stress and chemical degradation as well as reducing thermal stress. Polymer nanocomposite material Edit title. A nanocomposite is a matrix to which nanoparticles have been added to improve a particular property of the material. l stability by addition of nanoparticles [20, influence the reaction of polymers to fire for, ame retardants owing to their behavior at high, le is typically heated at a constant heating, t temperature. Some care must be taken in the manipulation of the solvent since it must be completely eliminated afterward [8, 11, 13, 16]. 16. In keeping with conventional polymer composites, there may also be some other form of conventional fibre reinforcement (such as woven carbon fibre) included. Polymer Nanocomposites, Nanostructured Materials - Fabrication to Applications, Mohindar Singh Seehra, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68142. Thus, T1H can indicate the change in molecular mobility caused by intermolecular interactions and the distribution of the components of the material. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. This important book provides a comprehensive account of the advances that have occurred in fire science in relation to a broad range of materials. By doing so, the optical properties can be utilized in more technologically important forms such as films and fibers. They are highly influenced by the structure, composition, interfacial interactions, and components of individual property. [8] Salavati-Niasari M, Dadkhah M, Davar F. zirconium oxide nanocrystals by decomposition of bis-aqua, tris-acetylacetonato, characterization of bismuth selenide nanoro, [10] Salavati-Niasari M. Template synthesi, of zeolite-Y Inorganic Chemistry Communications 2009;12: 359–363, [11] Salavati-Niasari M .Synthesis and char, [12] Salavati-Niasari M, Shaterian M, Ganjali, tert-butylhydroperoxide catalysted by host. Interest in nanocomposite materials has grown rapidly over the past decade. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The focus of this chapter has been on providing a basic understanding of polymer nanocomposites, especially methods to obtain them, with some examples of each one, and comparing the results obtained by each method for the same polymer system and the effects of degradation in the presence of each nanoparticle cited. Combining multiple materials at the nanoscale provides an opportunity to produce nanocomposites with unique and in many cases enhanced properties. The best method is determined by the relation and route to the polymer-nanoparticle pair. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electronic diffraction (SAED), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The material must contain the nanometer scale in at least one dimension in which the major component is called matrix in which fillers are dispersed [1 1. The properties of nanocomposites ha ve caused researchers and companies to consider using this material in several fields. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: [13] Khanna P.K, Lonkar S.P , Subbarao V.V. Optical absorption and photoluminescence emission properties of MgO nanocrystals were investigated. Tailored polymer nanocomposite membranes based on carbon, metal oxide and silicon nanomaterials: a review ... synthesis and properties of nanoscale materials has increased at an enormous pace over the past decades since they have a wide variety of applications ranging from adsorption to separation processes in water treatment. New Polymer Nanocomposites for Environmental Remediation summarizes recent progress in the development of materials’ properties, fabrication methods and their applications for treatment of contaminants, pollutant sensing and detection. Films of PC and PC-TiO2 were obtained using chloroform as solvent by mixing the polymer solution and TiO2 dispersion. Important advantages of composites over. Therefore, the researcher needs to pay attention to the temperatures used so as not to degrade the polymer during extrusion and also must pay attention to the time necessary for the nanoparticles to disperse properly. The samp, rate. ... Nanocomposites refers to composites in which one phase has nanoscale morphology such as nanoparticles, nanotubes etc. Nanocomposites, their Uses and Applications. The, at is released in a fire. A substantial amount of work has been carried out in the area of nanocomposite materials for optical applications. Applied Clay Science, [55] Du L, Qu B. The idea behind Nanocomposite is to use building blocks with dimensions in nanometre range to design and create new materials with unprecedented flexibility and … If the material has been adapted instead of reproduced from the original RSC publication "Reproduced from" can be substituted with "Adapted from". determine nanoparticles in polymer matrix[17, Fig. The difference between the crystal structure of MMT and pyrophyllite is that the latter is, neutral, while the former has layer charges du. Different kind of interaction between polymer and clay, 11. even gain, mass, these include the following: 1. Polymer Nano-Composite Materials. After obtaining these systems, they were evaluated by measuring the microhardness of each one. produce an inverse transition of a property. ... Effect of Different Gel Electrolytes on Conjugated Polymer - Graphene Quantum Dots Based Electrode for Solid State Hybrid Supercapacitors. To generate polymer nanocomposites, the following important information on the components need to be considered in order to understand the behavior of the new materials: (i) polymer mass; (ii) polymer chemical structure; (iii) polymer semi-crystallinity; (iv) polymer chemical solubility; (v) polymer thermal stability; (vi) nanoparticle surface area; (vii) nanoparticle chemical structure; and (viii) nanoparticle dispersion. All rights reserved. Because of the presence of 21% oxygen in air, materials with an LOI less than 21 are categorized as "combustible" while those with an LOI above 21 are classified as "self-extinguishing", because their burning cannot be continued at ambient temperature without an external energy participation. However, partial discharge has always been a predecessor to major faults and problems in this field. Inflame-retarding property of the obtained NC was higher to that of a pure recycled PET matrix. The results of a TGA measurement are usually displayed as a TGA curve in which. The particle sizes of the nanocrystals were from 15 to 25 nm. Most. The nanofiller was used at 0.2% wt/wt in relation to the matrix, and the drug was tested in two different concentrations (0.5 and 1.0% wt/wt). Polymer nanocomposite foams, polymer foams with nanoparticles, are an intriguing class of materials with unique structure and properties.The shape, size and surface chemistry of nanoparticles can be tailored to control the foam structure, and therefore, foam properties. T1H measurements of the nanocomposites formed by PC/TiO2 obtained by melt intercalation at 270°C. We share our knowledge and peer-reveiwed research papers with libraries, scientific and engineering societies, and also work with corporate R&D departments and government entities. Polymers are a large group of macromolecules and this group can be split into some categories: natural polymers, biopolymers, synthetic polymers and elastomers. The apparatus is the same used for polymer processing without nanoparticles. Exfoliated metal sulfide filler particles, product volatilization and thermal transport, ium sulfide (CdS) on the thermal degradation, their adsorption on the surface of the filler, mobility and serves to suppress chain transfer, of filler particles is a crucial step for. The filler and matrix were mixed using a centrifugal mixing device. e morphology. }, author={Wei-Li Song and P. Wang and L. Cao and A. Anderson and M. J. Meziani and A. Farr and Y. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the particles are in agglomerated form. How? Antimony trioxide reacts with halogen, rticles, which leads to the formation of more, th novel properties and applications. 2009; 475:782–788. Applied, [20] Morgan A B., Wilkie C A. Flame Retardant Polymer nanocomposite WileyPublishing/, [22] Laoutid F , Bonnaud L , Alexandre M , Lopez-Cuesta J.-M , Dubois Ph. 16 April 2012 5 Factors Influencing Properties Synthesis methods Polymer nanocomposite morphology. Interest in nanocomposite materials has grown rapidly over the past decade. image of ABS/clay is shown in Fig 5b [19, 21]. This can also be explained by the presence of a paramagnetic metal in the clay structure, which acts as a relaxing agent. The book presents processes, materials selection, and printability issues, … This does, ] ,As air contains 21% oxygen, materials with an LOI below, cannot be sustained at ambient temperature, chniques available to the analyst and provides, ficial information about a material. The Free Induction Decay (FID) amplitude was 40 points, ranging from 0.1 to 5000 ms, with four measurements for each point and a recycle interval of 5 s. Table 1 reports the T1H values for PVA and its nanocomposites with clay obtained by in situ polymerization. Chlorine and bromine can be used, halogens, because of their low bonding energy with carbon atoms, can readily be released. For example SEM images of tin and bismu, nanostructure and polymer matrix nanocompos, styrene (ABS) copolymer are shown in Fig 2, that confirm SEM images cannot perfectly. What are composites?? Nanocomposites refer to composites in. To better understand the role of clay nanoparticles in drug delivery systems, the following example can be cited. Light, stress and bio-organisms can have the same effect. The electrical coupling is generated by a voltage signal which provides a current distribution which is function of the gold, It has been shown that decrease in the real anisotropy of carbon nanotubes (nanofillers) in polymer nanocomposites with increase in the nanofiller contents is caused by the structural factor, namely, the formation of ring-shaped structures of the indicated nanofillers. This former happens because in nanoscale the asepsis of the oligodynamic effect is improved, killing bacteria. This technique provides valuable information related to the interaction of the nanoparticles with the polymer matrix, and it also indicates the dispersion and distribution of these nanoparticles in the matrix. A substantial amount of work has been carried out in the area of nanocomposite materials for optical applications. Polymer Nanocomposite 1. Polymer nanocomposites often present synergism between the polymer and nanoparticles, which can change how the matrix degrades. The main application fields and properties for these diverse types of smart polymer-based composite and nanocomposite materials are also discussed. The currently accepted explanatio, clay forms a barrier to mass transport and whic, 10.1 Crystal structures of some major clay minerals, Kaolinite is called a 1:1 type of layered mineral that is composed of a tetrahedral silica sheet, shared oxygen atoms (Fig 9). It can be used to speed up the degradation of synthetic polymer matrixes by microorganisms that need water. Polyhedron. Nanocomposite 1. Different effects can cause a sample to lose, or, ermal analysis). 11. during decomposition of the polymer, which assists composites with high thermal stability. ref:19, TEM images of a) PMMA/TiO 2 nanocomposite b) ABS/OMMT nanocomposite ref:19,21, All figure content in this area was uploaded by Masoud Salavati-Niasari, All content in this area was uploaded by Masoud Salavati-Niasari on Mar 16, 2016, Nowadays the enormous use of polymer materi, combination of properties, low weight and ease, A composite is defined as a combination of tw, wonderful and different range of applications, many metal compounds are high specific stiffn, In most composite materials, one phase is us, the other phase called the dispersed phase. Alternatively, the surface can be modified to change it from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, thus improving the resistance of biopolymers against microorganisms. One interesting method is a combination of solution dispersion and spray drying. In all groups, the proportion of nanofiller in the matrix was 2.5, 5 or 10% wt/wt to evaluate the influence of nanofiller in these systems. the silicate sheets, the obtained composite, When the individual silicate layers are completely and, trix, an exfoliated or delaminated structure, n between polymeric chains and clay are shown, ent of an exfoliated nanocomposite is much lower than that, rity of the polymer nanocomposites formed, a, l molecular formula [M2+1-x M3+x (OH)2]x+A. These drawbacks may be overcome by incorporation of semiconductor nanoparticles into the polymer matrices to form nanocomposites [10][11], synthesis of nanomaterials, semiconductors, We propose an approach useful for the evaluation of electrical conductivity of nanocomposite materials. Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites, materials where layered silicates are molecularly dispersed in suitable polymer matrices, are of both scientific and commercial significance. Polymer without an external energy contribution [22]. The enha, formation of more compact and cohesive char during the combustion test, 9. lecular Catalysis A: Chemical 278 2007;278: Metal sulfides nanoparticles in poly(methyl methacrylate) matrices were prepared and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). 6. In this case, when the nanofiller presents good intermolecular interaction with the polymer matrix, it can be better dispersed and distributed, producing a larger polymer/nanofiller interfacial area and facilitating the transmission of forces between them. A polymer nanocomposite is simply a composite in which we combine a polymer matrix (which could be thermosetting or thermoplastic) with some kind of nanomaterial. l oxide such as silica, ferric oxide, titanium, rric oxide and titanium oxide on the therma, rtially alter molecular mobility of the polymer, ed polymer nanocomposites leads to modification of the, n for enhanced fire properties is that the, h also insulates the underlying polymer from, ilicates is montmorillonite (MMT), owing to, the clay mineral is modified with an alkyl, interaction between the surfactant and the. By doing so, the optical properties can be utilized in more technologically important forms such as films and fibers. Because of their highly tunabl, emerging class of the most favorable layered crystals for preparing the multifunctional. Materials, [27] Salavati-Niasari M, Loghman-Estarki M.R, Davar F. Synthesis, thermal stability and, photoluminescence of new cadmium sulfide/organic composite hollow sphere, [28] Salavati-Niasari M, Loghman-Estarki MR, Davar F. Controllable synthesis of, nanocrystalline CdS with different morpholo, [29] Salavati-Niasari M, Davar F, Loghman-Estarki MR. Long chain polymer. Fig 5a shows TEM image of PMMA/TiO2 and TEM. By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers. In the melt intercalation at 270°C, the systems containing 3 and 5% organoclay showed formation of hybrid nanomaterials with some tendency of exfoliation. In this chapter, some examples of nanocomposites based on poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA); polycarbonate (PC) and matrixes of dental resins are presented. In recent, years, synthesis of transition metal nanopartic, science [36-39]. However, this procedure occurs in just one step after all conditions are adjusted and the final material presents good dispersion and distribution. The higher LOI, not mean that a material with a high oxygen index will not burn; the test measures the ease, 21 are classified as ‘‘combustible’’ whereas th, ‘‘self-extinguishing’’, because their combustion. Thermal decomposition in an inert atmo, TGA are often equipped with DTA (differential th, energetic nature of weight loss events, the DTA, not accompanied by a change in mass, e.g. These calculated particle sizes are smaller than the values obtained from TEM. This review summarizes the current state of polymer composites used as dielectric materials for energy storage. Nanocomposite materials can be applied in many areas, such as manufacture of plastic articles, medical devices, drug delivery systems, dental materials, military materials, sensors, automotive parts, biodegradable materials and others. This section gives examples of the three methods and discusses a new technique for their characterization: nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry to measure proton spin-lattice relaxation time, with a time constant of T1H. Particularly, polymer-based dielectrics are excellent candidates, owing to their properties such as high breakdown strength, low dielectric loss, flexibility and easy processing. View Academics in Polymer Nanocomposite,nanostructure Materials on of filler particles results in restriction of, les is a growing research field in chemical. Maria Inês Bruno Tavares, Emerson Oliveira da Silva, Paulo Rangel Cruz da Silva and Lívia Rodrigues de Menezes (July 12th 2017). Results show that TGA played a significant role in the formation of CdS nanostructures. A final group of chapters addresses the application of fire retardant materials in such areas as composites, automotive materials, military fabrics and aviation materials. To obtain these new materials with good characteristics, it is necessary to choose the right polymer-nanoparticle pair and preparation technique, because the new architecture depends on this. A DSC, ccur as a sample is heated, cooled or held, medium-sized polymer fire behavior tests. Bioproduced Polymers Self-Assemble with Graphene Oxide into Nanocomposite Films with Enhanced Mechanical Performance. Some application of polymer matrix nanocomposite: Together with numerous advantages that synthe, everyday life, there is one obvious disadvanta, major challenge for extending their use to most. Polyaniline–CdS nanocomposite, ie CA, Bourbigot S. Fire Retardancy of Polymers.RSC 2005, F. Synthesis of different morphologies of, Thermal Analysis 2008 Blackwell Publishing, kovic´ M, Comor MI, Bibic´ N, Djokovic´ V, Nedeljkovic´ JM. melting, crystallization or a gl, LOI is one of the most important and repres, retardant properties of plastics because of it, consists of determining the minimum concentration of oxyg, that will sustain combustion. T1H values for PVA and its nanocomposites obtained by solution casting. The optimum vaporization time was determined to be 30 minutes, which based on the Raman shift results; the grown CNTs exhibited high purity and crystallinity, as well as a desired aspect ratio. Fire Retardancy of Polymers New Strategies and Mechanisms RSC, [3] Horrocks AR, Price D, Fire retardant ma, [4] Ratna D Epoxy Composites: Impact Resist, [5] Friedrich K Fakirov S Zhang Z. Polymer Composite From Nano- to Macro-Scale 2005, [6] Salavati-Niasari , Davar F, Fereshteh, [7] Salavati-Niasari M, Dadkhah M, Davar F. Pure cubic ZrO, of a new precursor. To make the silicate compatible with the polymer, ammonium salt by cation exchange. The present work reports the synthesis of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanocrystals via a thermal decomposition route and the study of physicochemical properties of products. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, International Journal of Nanomechanics Science and Technology, Bismaleimide/Rice Husk Nanosilica Nanocomposites – Investigation on Thermal Properties, Synthesis and Characterization of Metal Sulfides Nanoparticles/Poly(methyl methacrylate) Nanocomposites, Nanocomposites based on graphene analogous materials and conducting polymers: a review, Application of recycled PET/carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotube composites for Cd2+ adsorption from aqueous solution: a study of morphology, thermal stability, and electrical conductivity, Controlling Vaporization Time As Effective Parameter on Purified Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Based on CVD Method, Polymer-Layered Silicate and Silica Nanocomposites, Fire Properties of Polymer Composite Materials, Synthesis and characterization of SnO2 nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of new inorganic precursor, Long chain polymer assisted synthesis of flower-like cadmium sulfide nanorods via hydrothermal process, Synthesis and Characterization of ZnO Nanocrystals from Thermolysis of New Precursor, Synthesis, characterization and catalytic oxidation of cyclohexene with molecular oxygen over host (montmorillonite-K10)/guest (nickel(II) complexes of 12- and 13-membered diaza dioxa Schiff-base macrocyclic ligand) nanocatalyst (HGN), Magnesium oxide nanocrystals via thermal decomposition of magnesium oxalate, Epoxidation of cyclohexene with K10-montmorillonite and Schiff-base macrocyclic copper complexes, Polyaniline–CdS nanocomposite from organometallic cadmium precursor, FEM modeling of conductivity and electrical coupling in polymeric nanocomposite material. Thermal degradation: High temperature gives molecules energy, which vibrates and deforms them, but it also can break the chain bonds, prompting the loss of properties. The properties of nanocomposites ha ve caused researchers and companies to consider using this material in several fields. Polymer nanocomposite is a result of continuous effort, successfully journey of which was started from 1993 after the pioneer work done by Usuki et al. 1. Polymer nanocomposites have recently been attracting attention among researchers in electrical insulating applications from energy storage to power delivery. It was also gleaned from the results that at the lower vaporization time and temperature, the catalyst-support interaction is not completed to allow the metal particles to partake in the deposition process, but in the optimized vaporization process, MWCNTs can be selectively grown as a function of CVD time. Various types of clay are widely used because they are versatile and can cause chemical modification of the matrix by changing the exchangeable cations. The results are listed in Table 3. The morphology, sampling enough of the material [14]. This method promotes good dispersion and distribution of the nanoparticles in the polymer matrix [10, 15]. Polymer Nanocomposite-Based Smart Materials: From Synthesis to Application provides a broad, comprehensive review on all major categories of smart materials and their preparation routes. In fact, we used from a trash and change it to a product with potential of heavy metal adsorption, high electrical conductivity, and good flame retardancy properties. diamine)nanocomposite materials (HGNM). Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. By Philippe Tingaut, Christian Eyholzer and Tanja Zimmermann. Composite- and nanocomposite-materials have been manufactured using a wide range of matrices (e.g. rmal, sonochemistry and co-precipitation method [40-46]. The charge within the layers is nearly balanced, and the, consisting of two fused silica tetrahedral sheets sandwiching an edge-shared octahe, The most promising candidate of the layered s. its natural abundance and high aspect ratio [51, 52]. Particularly, polymer-based dielectrics are excellent candidates, owing to their properties such as high breakdown strength, low dielectric loss, flexibility and easy processing. These loads have several applications, including in polymer matrices aiming at improving mechanical properties, as also seen for dental restorations. The films were dried at room temperature with air circulation and the materials obtained were evaluated by measuring the T1H values. The evolution of the HRR over time, in particular the value of its, peak (pHRR), is usually taken into account in, Currently, numerous fire retardant fillers fo. This characteristic can extend or shorten the life of the biopolymer matrix, enabling tailoring materials for specific uses. In this book, many practical examples are presented to show how to prepare the nanocomposites.

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